Imagine yourself standing on a vibrant pickleball court with the sun shining brightly, the rhythmic sound of shoes squeaking on the court surface, and the satisfying “plonk” of the ball meeting the paddle. That’s the essence of pickleball a sport that’s rapidly taking over recreational spaces across the United States and beyond. But the unsung hero of this growing phenomenon? The pickleball ball itself. This small, perforated sphere is at the heart of every game, influencing everything from the player’s performance to the tempo of the match.


What is a pickleball ball?

Pickleball balls might seem simple at first glance, but they are intricately designed pieces of sporting equipment. They are small, hollow, and perforated spheres generally made from plastic. Resembling wiffle balls, these objects have between 26 to 40 round holes, depending on their intended use be it indoor or outdoor play.

In terms of specifications, the diameter of a standard pickleball ball ranges between 2.874 to 2.972 inches, with a weight that falls between 0.78 to 0.935 ounces. The ball must be made from a durable plastic material, often a type of high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and free of significant texturing. The seamless design ensures that the ball’s flight characteristics remain consistent, allowing for fair and enjoyable gameplay.

History of pickleball balls

Understanding the history of pickleball balls offers a fascinating glimpse into how this sport has evolved over the years. Initially, when pickleball was invented in the mid-1960s, players utilized wiffle balls. These balls, while accessible, were notoriously unpredictable due to their inconsistency in manufacturing quality.


From the 1960s to the 1980s, the use of Cosom balls became popular, especially for indoor play. These were lightweight with a larger hole pattern (typically 26 holes), making them perform satisfactorily in indoor conditions. Yet, as the sport’s popularity surged, the need for more reliable, sturdy balls became evident.

Manufacturers then began creating pickleball-specific balls engineered to offer enhanced durability, consistency, and performance. The introduction of outdoor balls with a smaller (40-hole) pattern enabled better resilience against wind conditions. Today, pickleball balls come in a variety of materials and specifications, fine-tuned to cater to the diverse needs of players. Organizations like the USA Pickleball Association (USAPA) and the International Federation of Pickleball (IFP) regulate these specifications, ensuring fair play and a more enjoyable experience for enthusiasts.

Pickleball ball specifications

To truly appreciate the intricacies of pickleball balls, understanding their specifications is crucial. Everything from their size, weight, material, construction, and even color, plays a role in the ball’s performance on the court.


Size and weight

When it comes to the dimensions, the official diameter of a pickleball ball ranges between 2.874 to 2.972 inches (7.29 to 7.54 cm). This very specific range ensures that the balls are uniform and predictable in their behavior. Similarly, the weight of an official pickleball ball falls between 0.78 to 0.935 ounces (22.1 to 26.5 grams).

These measurements are meticulously regulated by governing organizations, ensuring that the ball remains consistent in its flight and bounce characteristics, regardless of the brand or model.


Pickleball balls are typically made of durable plastic materials, particularly high-density polyethylene (HDPE). This choice of material is not arbitrary. HDPE allows the balls to withstand the rigors of constant play while maintaining their structural integrity over time. Unlike the wiffle ball, which was made from a less sturdy plastic, HDPE does not crack or split as easily, offering a longer lifespan and more consistent performance.


When discussing construction, it is crucial to note that pickleball balls are hollow and perforated, designed to have a smooth surface without significant texturing. The perforations (holes) on the ball serve multiple purposes: they reduce air resistance, stabilize the ball’s flight, and influence its speed and control.

  • Indoor balls: These typically feature 26 larger holes, allowing for higher control and slower speed, making them perfect for indoor play with minimal wind interference.
  • Outdoor balls: In contrast, outdoor balls have 40 smaller holes designed to withstand wind conditions and provide a straighter flight path.


The color of pickleball balls is more than an aesthetic choice; it serves practical purposes. The official color is often yellow, but balls can also be white, green, or orange. The choice of color can depend on several factors, including visibility on the playing surface and the specific rules of a tournament.

  • Yellow and Green Balls: Mostly used for outdoor play, as they are easily visible against green or dark-colored courts.
  • White Balls: Preferred for indoor play where court surfaces are usually wooden or similarly dark-colored.
  • Orange Balls: Often used for both indoor and outdoor settings due to their high visibility.

In each case, the ball must be a uniform color, barring any identification markings, to meet the regulatory standards set by the USAPA and IFP.

Types of pickleball balls

In the world of pickleball, not all balls are created equal. Depending on the playing environment and the level of competition, different types of pickleball balls are better suited for different conditions.


Outdoor balls

Outdoor pickleball balls are specifically designed to contend with the challenges posed by open-air environments. The elements like wind and sunlight significantly influence the design of these balls. Typically, outdoor balls feature 40 smaller holes, a characteristic that ensures greater stability against wind, thus allowing for more predictable flight paths.

These balls are made from a harder, more durable plastic material to withstand rougher court surfaces like concrete and asphalt. The increased weight and denser construction reduce the ball’s air resistance, permitting a faster game pace. Some popular models include the Franklin X-40 and Onix Pure 2 Outdoor balls, known for their durability and exceptional performance in outdoor settings.

Indoor balls

Indoor pickleball balls, on the other hand, are crafted to complement the controlled conditions of indoor courts. They usually boast 26 larger holes, which allow for higher control and slower ball speed factors crucial for the precision required in indoor play. Constructed with a softer plastic, indoor balls weigh slightly less (between 0.78 to 0.85 ounces), contributing to a more measured game.

These balls are particularly effective on smooth indoor surfaces like wooden gymnasium floors. Models like the Onix Fuse Indoor balls are popular choices, offering players consistent performance and longevity.

Read more: Indoor vs Outdoor Pickleballs: The Ultimate Guide

Tournament balls

For competitive play, the choice of the ball can be the difference between victory and defeat. Tournament pickleball balls adhere to stringent standards set by governing bodies such as the USAPA. The diameter must be between 2.874 to 2.972 inches, and weight must fall within 0.78 to 0.935 ounces.

Bespoke models like the Dura Fast 40 Outdoor Ball and the Onix Fuse G2 Indoor Ball have become mainstays in official tournaments. These balls are praised for their superior performance, meeting all the exacting standards and winning acclaim for their consistency and reliability.

Practice balls

When it comes to practice, versatility is key. Picking the right practice ball depends on whether you are playing indoors or outdoors:

  • Indoor practice balls: Made of softer plastic for better control. These balls are lighter and easier to maneuver, making them ideal for honing your skills on indoor courts.
  • Outdoor practice balls: Constructed from harder, more durable plastic to withstand the elements and rougher surfaces. With a higher bounce and faster speed, these balls help players develop stronger, more aggressive gameplay.

Popular choices for practice include the TOP Pickleball (The Outdoor Pickleball), which weighs around 25 grams and boasts a seamless, one-piece construction, ensuring durability and prolonged use.

Pickleball ball performance

How a pickleball ball performs on the court can significantly influence the quality of the game. Understanding the characteristics that govern performance, such as bounce, durability, spin, and aerodynamics, can elevate your experience and strategy on the court.



The bounce of a pickleball ball might seem like a minor detail, but it plays a pivotal role in gameplay. Consistency in bounce ensures that players can predict the ball’s flight and react accordingly. High-quality pickleball balls offer a consistent and predictable bounce, allowing players to focus on their shots with confidence.

For instance, premium models like the Onix Pure 2 Outdoor ball are renowned for their exceptional bounce. They enable players to anticipate the ball’s movement, thereby strategizing their moves effectively. However, lower-quality balls, such as the Franklin X-40, might quickly lose their stiffness and bounce characteristics after just a few games, making consistent play challenging.


The true measure of a pickleball ball’s worth often lies in its durability. A ball that can withstand intense gameplay without cracking or splitting is invaluable. The high-quality materials used in premier pickleball balls ensure a longer lifespan, reducing the need for frequent replacements.

For example:

  • High Durability: Dura Fast 40 Outdoor and Pro Penn 40 balls last over 20 and 30 games, respectively, before showing significant wear.
  • Medium Durability: Selkirk SLK Competition ball, which sees its stiffness degrade by about 10% after 15 games.
  • Low Durability: Franklin X-40 ball, known for losing its optimal performance within 7 games.

A durable ball not only ensures fair play but also proves economical in the long run.


Spin adds an entirely new layer to the game of pickleball. Applying spin effectively can throw your opponents off-balance, making your shots harder to predict and return. Topspin causes the ball to dive sharply after clearing the net, while backspin makes it hover before dropping abruptly.

Understanding how spin affects the ball’s trajectory is crucial for strategic gameplay. Balls that respond well to spin, like those designed for tournament play, are often favored by more advanced players who wish to add an edge to their performance.


Aerodynamics is another key factor in the ball’s performance. The perforated design of pickleball balls creates turbulence, disrupting the airflow around the ball and slowing its trajectory. This increased air resistance demands more precise shot planning.

The turbulence created by the perforations makes the ball’s flight slightly unpredictable, requiring players to anticipate its movement better. This is particularly significant in outdoor settings, where wind can further influence the ball’s path. Understanding these aerodynamic principles helps players adapt their strategies, making them more effective on the court.

In essence, the nuanced characteristics of bounce, durability, spin, and aerodynamics come together to create a dynamic, engaging game of pickleball.

Choosing the right pickleball ball

Selecting the best pickleball balls involves more than just picking one off the shelf. Several crucial factors need consideration to ensure the ball you choose aligns perfectly with your needs and enhances your game.


Skill level

Different types of balls suit different skill levels. Beginners might find softer, lighter balls easier to manage. Foam balls are perfect for those just getting into the game, as they aid in controlling shots and reducing the likelihood of injury.

As you step up to intermediate and advanced levels, transitioning to harder plastic balls, known for their consistent bounce and durability, can be beneficial. Models like the Franklin Sports X-26 Indoor Pickleballs cater specifically to players looking to enhance their skills further.

Skill LevelRecommended Ball TypeNotable Models
BeginnerSoft, lightweight foam ballsPractice Foam Balls
IntermediateHarder plastic balls with consistent bounceFranklin Sports X-26, Onix Fuse Indoor
AdvancedTournament-grade plastic ballsDura Fast 40, Onix Fuse G2 Indoor

Playing surface

The type of playing surface also significantly influences ball selection:

  • Indoor surfaces: These require balls with larger perforations (typically 26 holes) and softer plastic construction. Indoor balls like the Onix Fuse Indoor provide higher control and precision, essential for the smooth surfaces found in gyms and recreational halls.
  • Outdoor surfaces: Outdoor courts are usually rougher, and balls need to withstand environmental factors like wind and sun. Balls designed for outdoor use, like the Franklin X-40, have smaller holes (40) and harder plastic to ensure they fly straighter and maintain durability.
Indoor PlayOnix Fuse Indoor Pickleballs, Green
Outdoor PlayFranklin X-40 Outdoor Sports Pickleballs, Yellow

Weather conditions

Weather conditions add another layer of complexity to ball selection. Humid environments can make balls faster and more bouncy. Conversely, in windy conditions, having a heavier outdoor ball with smaller perforations becomes critical for maintaining control.

Weather Conditions and Ball Selection

Weather ConditionIdeal Ball CharacteristicsExamples
Humid conditionsMore bouncy; responsive to quicker shotsIndoor Plastic Balls (e.g., Onix Fuse Indoor)
Windy conditionsHeavier with smaller holes for better stabilityOutdoor Balls (e.g., Franklin X-40)
High altitudeLess air resistance for faster and farther travelOutdoor Balls (e.g., Dura Fast 40)

By taking these factors into account, you can choose a pickleball ball that not only matches your skill level and playing surface but also adapts well to varying weather conditions, ensuring a seamless and enjoyable game.

Pickleball ball maintenance

Maintaining your pickleball balls ensures they last longer and perform consistently. Proper maintenance and storage can be the difference between a good game and a great one.



Keeping your pickleball balls clean is essential for maintaining their quality and performance. Dirty balls can affect bounce and spin, making gameplay unpredictable.

  • Wipe with a damp cloth: Use a simple, damp cloth to wipe off dirt, sweat, and other contaminants from the ball’s surface. Avoid submerging the balls in water or using harsh chemicals, which can degrade the plastic.
  • Gentle cleansers: If the balls are particularly dirty, a mild cleanser can be used. Ensure that the cleanser is rinsed off thoroughly to prevent residue buildup.


Proper storage is equally important in maintaining the longevity and performance of your balls.

  • Cool, dry place: Store pickleball balls in a cool, dry environment, avoiding direct sunlight and extreme temperatures. Heat and humidity can cause the balls to degrade faster.
  • Breathable containers: Avoid storing balls in plastic bags or airtight containers, as they can trap moisture, leading to mold growth. Instead, opt for breathable containers or mesh bags.

Read more: Pickleball Ball Holders: The Ultimate Guide to Storage and Organization


Knowing when to replace your pickleball balls is crucial. Worn or damaged balls not only diminish performance but can also pose safety risks.

  • Visual inspection: Regularly inspect your balls for cracks, discoloration, or loss of bounce. If a ball seems compromised, it should be replaced immediately.
  • Usage frequency: Heavy use means you’d likely need to replace your balls more frequently. Competitive players should keep a stock of high-quality balls such as the Onix Pure 2 Outdoor to ensure consistency in their play.

Best Practices for Ball Maintenance

Maintenance TaskFrequencyNotes
Wipe with a damp clothAfter each sessionRemoves dirt and contaminants
Use of mild cleansersWhen particularly dirtyEnsure thorough rinsing to avoid residue
Visual inspectionRegularly (weekly)Look for cracks, discoloration, loss of bounce
Proper storageAlwaysCool, dry, breathable containers

By following these maintenance and storage guidelines, you ensure that your pickleball balls remain in top condition, providing a consistent playing experience every time you step on the court.

Pickleball ball etiquette

Etiquette in pickleball isn’t just about following the rules it’s about respecting your fellow players and ensuring the game is enjoyable for everyone. This extends to how you handle and select balls before, during, and after play.

Ball selection

Selecting the appropriate ball sets the tone for fair and enjoyable gameplay. Here are some key points to consider:

  • Consensus: When playing with others, always agree on the type of ball before starting the game. This ensures everyone is on the same page and can adjust their strategies accordingly.
  • Visibility: Choose a ball color that’s easily visible on your court surface for all players, avoiding any hues that might blend in and cause confusion.

Ball replacement

Knowing when to replace a ball and doing so promptly is crucial to maintaining game quality.

  • Check for damage: Regularly check balls for cracks, splits, or other signs of wear. Damaged balls can alter gameplay and could cause injury.
  • Quick retrieval: If a ball goes out of bounds, retrieve it quickly without delaying the game. This keeps the momentum going and shows respect for all players.

Ball handling

Proper handling of balls is about more than just keeping the game moving it’s also a matter of safety and sportsmanship.

  • Gentle returns: When returning a ball to another court, gently roll or toss it back. This action prevents disrupting their game and shows courtesy.
  • Avoid forceful hits: In social or mixed-skill games, avoid hitting balls excessively hard, as this can be intimidating or even injurious to less experienced players.
  • Call out stray balls: If a ball from another court rolls into yours, call out to alert those players and return it swiftly.

Key Etiquette Guidelines

Etiquette AspectRecommended PracticePurpose
Ball SelectionAgree with all players; choose visible colorsEnsures fair and consistent gameplay
Ball ReplacementCheck for damage; quick retrievalMaintains game quality and safety
Ball HandlingGentle returns; avoid forceful hits; call out stray ballsPromotes sportsmanship, safety, and uninterrupted play

By adhering to these guidelines on ball selection, replacement, and handling, you foster a respectful, enjoyable, and safe environment for everyone on the pickleball court.


What is the standard size and weight of a pickleball ball?

The official size of a pickleball ball is between 2.874 and 2.972 inches in diameter, and its weight ranges from 0.78 to 0.935 ounces.

How do indoor and outdoor pickleball balls differ?

Indoor pickleball balls have 26 larger holes, are generally lighter, and are constructed from softer plastic. Outdoor pickleball balls feature 40 smaller holes, are heavier, and are made from harder, more durable plastic to withstand the elements and rough court surfaces.

How often should I replace my pickleball balls?

Replacement frequency depends on usage. Heavy, frequent play may necessitate replacements every few weeks, especially for competitive players. Conduct regular visual inspections for any signs of wear, such as cracks or loss of bounce, to determine when to replace the balls.

Can I use the same ball for indoor and outdoor play?

While it’s possible, it is not recommended. Indoor and outdoor balls are optimized for their respective environments. Indoor balls provide better control on smooth surfaces,while outdoor balls are designed to be stable against winds and on rougher surfaces. Using the wrong type of ball can negatively impact your game.

How do I clean and maintain my pickleball balls?

Clean your pickleball balls by wiping them with a damp cloth after each session to remove dirt and sweat. Store them in a cool, dry place, away from direct sunlight and extreme temperatures. Use breathable containers to prevent moisture buildup, and regularly inspect and replace worn or damaged balls.

Does the color of the pickleball ball matter?

Yes, the color of the pickleball ball matters for visibility on the court. Yellow is the most common color due to its high visibility in various lighting conditions. However, white and green are also acceptable, with white often used for indoor play and darker courts, while green can be versatile for both indoor and outdoor play.


Pickleball balls might seem like a minor component of the game, but they play an essential role in ensuring fair, enjoyable, and competitive play. From their historical evolution to their intricate specifications and performance characteristics, these balls have undergone significant advancements to cater to a diverse range of needs and playing environments.

Understanding the nuances of pickleball ball types, whether for indoor, outdoor, practice, or tournament play, can drastically improve your gameplay. Factor in your skill level, playing surface, and prevalent weather conditions to make informed decisions on ball selection. Maintenance practices, including regular cleaning, proper storage, and timely replacement, ensure that your balls remain in optimal condition, contributing to a better overall playing experience.

Moreover, observing proper ball etiquette enhances the game for everyone involved, promoting safety, respect, and sportsmanship. Whether you’re a beginner finding your footing or an advanced player seeking precision and spin, the right pickleball ball can be your ally on the court.

In conclusion, the next time you step onto the court, remember that the small perforated sphere in your hand is a marvel of sporting innovation and design. Treat it with the respect it deserves, and watch as it elevates your game to new heights.